How to Make a Living Will in Ontario

How to Make a Living Will in Ontario, Canada

In the ever-evolving world of legal documentation, a living will is gaining prominence for its role in healthcare decision-making. For those residing in Ontario, Canada, understanding what a living will is and how to create one is crucial. This guide aims to demystify the process, offering you a clear path to establish a living will that aligns with your wishes and legal requirements.

What is a Living Will?

A living will, also known as an advance healthcare directive or personal directive, is a legal document that outlines your preferences for medical treatment in case you become unable to communicate or make decisions for yourself. It is a proactive approach to ensure that your wishes are respected when it comes to critical medical choices. A living will typically covers:

  1. Life-Sustaining Treatments

In your living will, you can specify your stance on life-sustaining treatments such as CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation), mechanical ventilation, and artificial nutrition and hydration. You can indicate whether you wish to receive these treatments or not, under what circumstances, and for how long.

  1. Pain Management

You can outline your preferences for pain management and palliative care. This includes the use of pain-relieving medications and procedures to ensure your comfort during a serious illness.

  1. Organ Donation

Many people choose to express their desire to be an organ donor in their living will. You can specify which organs or tissues you would like to donate and for what purposes.

  1. Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) Orders

A living will can include your preference regarding DNR orders, which instruct medical professionals not to perform CPR if your heart stops beating or you stop breathing.

Why You Need a Living Will

Creating a living will is a responsible and compassionate act that serves several essential purposes:

  1. Ensures Your Voice is Heard

A living will ensures that your healthcare decisions are respected, even if you are unable to communicate them due to illness or incapacitation. It provides you with a voice in your medical care.

  1. Reduces Family Conflicts

In difficult times, family members may struggle with making critical medical decisions on your behalf. Having a living will in place can alleviate their burden and reduce potential conflicts.

  1. Provides Clarity to Healthcare Providers

Healthcare professionals need clear guidance when it comes to administering care. A living will helps them understand your wishes and provide appropriate treatment.

  1. Supports Ethical and Moral Values

Your living will allow you to align your medical choices with your ethical, cultural, and religious beliefs. This ensures that your healthcare is in harmony with your values.

Creating a Living Will in Ontario, Canada

Now that you understand the significance of a living will let’s delve into the steps to create one in Ontario, Canada:

Step 1: Determine Your Preferences

Before drafting your living will, take some time to reflect on your medical treatment preferences. Consider different scenarios and what choices align with your values and beliefs.

Step 2: Choose a Substitute Decision Maker

In Ontario, you have the option to appoint a substitute decision-maker who will make medical decisions on your behalf if you cannot. This individual should be someone you trust and who understands your values and preferences.

Step 3: Consult with a Legal Professional

While it’s possible to create a living will without legal assistance, consulting with a lawyer who specializes in healthcare directives can ensure that your document meets all legal requirements in Ontario.

Step 4: Draft Your Living Will

Your living will should be clear, specific, and in compliance with Ontario’s legal standards. It should include your preferences for life-sustaining treatments, pain management, organ donation, and DNR orders, if applicable.

Step 5: Sign and Witness

Your living will must be signed in the presence of two witnesses who are not beneficiaries of your estate, your healthcare providers, or substitute decision-makers. This is a legal requirement in Ontario.

Step 6: Distribute Copies

Provide copies of your living will to your healthcare providers, substitute decision-makers, and anyone else involved in your healthcare.

Step 7: Review and Update

It’s important to review your living will periodically, especially if there are significant changes in your health or personal circumstances. Update it as needed to ensure it accurately reflects your wishes.


A living will is a powerful tool that allows you to maintain control over your medical decisions, even in challenging situations. In Ontario, Canada, taking the time to create a living will is a responsible and compassionate choice. By following the steps outlined in this guide and consulting with legal professionals if necessary, you can ensure that your healthcare preferences are honored, providing you and your loved ones with peace of mind.

Remember, while a living will is a crucial aspect of healthcare planning, it’s also advisable to discuss your wishes with your family and healthcare providers to ensure everyone is aware of your preferences. Your well-thought-out living will is a gift to yourself and your loved ones, providing clarity and guidance during difficult times.

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